Lieutenant Island Views : Commentary About Finance, Politics and Baseball

Wall Street Crash = No Jobs; The Blessing for Recent and Upcoming Graduates

April 19, 2009

When Winston Churchill lost the Parliamentary election of 1945, his wife advised him that it was “a blessing in disguise.” His response was that the blessing was “very well disguised!” Many recently laid-off young bankers and college seniors who are NOT receiving investment banking jobs are feeling a lot like Churchill in 1945.

Unlike Churchill, the blessing may be closer to reality than they realize. As a long time investment banking group head, recruiter and, for the last two years, a college finance professor, I have seen far too many bright young twenty year olds pursuing a false dream on Wall Street. The allure was the trappings of the job, not the experience or nature of the work. High compensation, an exciting life style, prestige, material possessions and other superficialities were part of a bargain made in exchange for 100+ hour work weeks, sublimination of personal creativity, foregone time with friends and, at times, abuse by obsessive compulsive ego maniacs who may have suffered similarly and view mistreatment of junior bankers as an outward sign of their power and success.

The real question is whether investment banking is what they really want(ed) to do or whether it is just a means to achieve the fruits of a Faustian bargain. Was or will it be worth it for them? Will they be happy? Will they even last long enough to achieve the fruits?

For a few, the answer is yes. They will be either the lucky or those who genuinely enjoy the challenges and sacrifices attendant to the career. They will tend to be people who possess various requisite skills and aptitude for specific jobs on the “Street.” Facility with numbers, problem solving talents and an enjoyment algebra and statistics are crucial prerequisites for success at virtually any Wall Street position. Knowledge of psychology, legal concepts, salesmanship and recognizing recurring historical patterns are also important. An entrepreneurial spirit, a proven ability to recover from severe setbacks and a desire to make money are a must for all.

Sadly, the last point is probably the only common thread with the vast majority of young Wall Street job seekers and the freshly unemployed. Few actually would ever see the relevance of most of the skills enumerated above except maybe for the quantitative aspects and regrettably, few would ever mention a love of algebra or statistics less they be viewed as “geeky” or unsophisticated.

Typical arguments made by “twenty-somethings” when seeking investment banking jobs include variants of the following:

• “I am really a hard worker and love putting in 100+ hour weeks as a “work unit”
• “I have always received top grades and have never been anything but the best academically”
• “I know what it takes to be a success and I have it”
• “I have always wanted to be an investment banker”

Too infrequently asked or sincerely answered are questions like:

• Would you work 100+ hours per week as a banker next year if your pay were to be $20,000 per year with no bonus and limited economic upside?
• If you have never experienced a serious setback in life or evidenced an ability to recover from adversity, why should one believe you can do so in a high pressure and now low paying job?
• What does it say about your intellectual curiosity or self realization that the only thing you ever wanted to be is an investment banker? Explain why this will still be the case in a low pay environment
• When asking about skills to be an effective banker, see how many, if any, cite knowledge of legal concepts, historical methods, psychology or even statistics, algebra and salesmanship

The point to glean from such questions and observations is that the preponderance of the 35-50% of the classes at Princeton, Harvard, Yale or any other college that now seeks Wall Street jobs are not appropriate candidates regardless of their inherent intellect. They would likely be happier in other pursuits if they could only get over trappings of Wall Street. Sadly, many recruiters have been as misguided as the students in recognizing this verity or in selecting appropriate candidates.

The good news is that the allure and job availability are now significantly diminished. Only those who “really” want jobs, regardless of compensation, are likely to land such positions. Ridicule of bankers, a scarcity of positions and limitations on economic upside will do much to reorient thinking.

Where will the young people go for employment? Is it really a blessing that they won’t be on Wall Street?

It will be a blessing if the students and newly laid-off exercise self realization and pursue jobs which excite them because of the content rather than the compensation or perceived prestige. It will be a blessing if they experiment, explore and take chances pursuing dreams rather than dollars. Who knows, maybe some would be bankers will instead join the Peace Corps, start a business, become teachers, coaches, artists, work with autistic children or even become community organizers. Most importantly, maybe they will find satisfaction and happiness doing something because they enjoy it. They may even find a great truth to be that enjoyment and happiness with one’s job can lead to significant career success. History would suggest that this is what happened to Barack Obama, Bill Gates and Bill Belicheck. None can argue that they pursued traditional jobs or were the highest paid when they left college. They were bright, hard working and blessed because they sought careers doing what they enjoyed when they were young!

The attached article from the New York Times provides further insights on this topic:

Note: While the author did spend a significant number of years on Wall Street, he was a history major who liked algebra and statistics and remained a practicing Democrat to the chagrin of his loyal clients. His immediate post college years included selling advertising, travel to Brazil without a job in pursuit of adventure and an around the world trip mostly by public bus. He arrived on Wall Street in the sustained and severe downturn of the late 1970s and early 80s with 20% interest rates, low salaries and minimal bonuses. He stayed because he enjoyed the work, liked the clients (despite their political predilections)and was excited by the markets. Eventually the compensation got better and he did not complain!

Why You Should Hate Brussels Sprouts Rather Than Bankers!

April 17, 2009
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The Daily Deal has an uproarious essay on why we should not vilify bankers any more. They point out that it is just starting to get passé. New villains are needed. Their recommendation; Brussels sprouts!
Their case is absolutely compelling.

While many of you may not read ‘The Deal” on a regular basis, if at all, it is a terrifically well written “trade rag” for the finance industry. They have both a “wicked” sense of humor and social conscience in addition to being excellent reporters (Note: they assist this writer in his teaching at Morehouse College). Check out the article.

If Goldman Returns its TARP Funds, Will Others Follow?

March 24, 2009

Given that Wall Street functions largely as a “Land of Lemmings” where one idea, regardless how good or bad, is usually criticised and then copied if it is seen as potentially beneficial to either personal pecuniary interests or corporate revenue generation. Right now, many on Wall Street believe that repaying TARP money certainly addresses the first point and could serve the second (or give a competitor a leg up if not followed). The article attached goes into detail on many of the implications of possible paybacks. One that seems to be missing is details on how many of the banks can raise the capital quickly. One needs only look to a bank’s loan book for the answer. To the extent that a bank can find a way not to “roll” a large revolver, use a technical covenant default to reduce exposure, not reapply toxic loan sales to new credits or generally accellerate a cutback in corporate lending (because that’s where the large loans are and Congress is not focusing on corporate liquidity), it can free up capital for repaying the government. Unfortunately, the casualty of this is a major reduction in corporate credit just when we need to help corporations make it through the downturn with available loan capital. In no small way is this part of the “unintended consequences” we addressed in our earlier piece on Congress’ compensation legislation. Even if the bill does not become law, the simple passage by the House has put the fear of God into banks. The really bad news is that the Lemmings of Wall Street may march their corporate clients into the sea to rid themselves of the yoke of TARP!,%20will%20others?&st=Search

Did Andrew Cuomo Read Our AIG Compensation Post?

March 24, 2009
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From the attached article, one can see that Attorney General Andrew Cuomo is using a little gentle persuasion along the line of thinking we suggested earlier this week. Let’s hope he is not afraid to push harder and work with the leaders of the New York congressional delegation to develop a Black List that makes it tough for those who do not pay back to find gainful employment with any firm that does business with TARP recipients. Punish the guilty, not the innocent who must stay at their jobs to clean up the mess!

Wall Street Compensation Legislation; A Pyrrhic Victory

March 20, 2009

Members of congress recently passed a bill which will tax all individuals working for institutions which received over $5billion of TARP (Troubled Asset Relief Program) funds at a rate of 90% of all income earned over $250,000. Rather than basking in the glory of their decisive and punitive action, perhaps members of Congress should go back to their Plutarch and Roman history to learn about Pyrrhic victories. The tale of King Pyrrhus of Epirus, whose army suffered irreplaceable casualties in defeating the Romans during the Pyrrhic War, has lessons applicable today. Plutarch reported the King to have said after his final victory that “one more such victory would utterly undo him”.

Congress had a victory which could utterly undo the recovery progress that has been made to date and certainly result in a number of unintended negative consequences. As I say this, in no way am I apologizing for the bad judgment, avarice or possible malfeasance by bonus recipients at AIG. It is disgusting on its face. That said, the solution being proffered gives America a Pyrrhic victory. The reason is that it goes way beyond AIG. To punish some 400 people, Congress chooses to take action that has innumerable negative consequences:

1) It discourages future investment by private investors in a public/private TALF (Term Asset-Backed Securitization Loan Facility) program to restart asset securitizations-logical concerns arise as to potential government intervention in compensation and the general investment decision making of such private investors

2) It raises significant issues as to the sanctity of contracts and whether the government could unilaterally force the breaching of contracts with institutions in which it has made TARP investments-If you can’t rely on a written contract, what can you rely on?

3) It will likely lead TARP recipient banks to take actions to rapidly repay their TARP investments. While this may sound good, they will likely do it by decreasing lending to generate requisite capital for TARP repayment-Is this a time we want to take action which discourages lending?

4) We have seen the adverse consequences of inadequate regulation and supervision of highly motivated and intelligent players on Wall Street. That said, the problems really were generated by a small minority of the participants on Wall Street. The majority were honest hard working people who have suffered significantly in terms of job loss and investment in their companies’ equity (the currency which very many were paid with significant liquidity restrictions). Do we really think that they will want to stay working on Wall Street or that we will continue to attract top minds to an industry where top performers make substantially less compensation than do the lawyers, accountants or mid level executives at businesses across the nation with whom they work? It would be a mistake to think that top people have no alternatives. Foreign institutions are already seizing on the opportunity to strip American firms of top performers (BofA/Merrill is now suing Deutsche Bank for just such an action). Other savvy Wall Street veterans with significant experience in prior downturns are simply retiring or turning to other more remunerative and/or less stressful pursuits.

5) The real bad guys already have made their money. The rogue traders and irresponsible CEOs making $30-50million per year over the last ten years are crying all the way to the offshore bank. To punish the AIG 400 the way that Congress desires, we also have to punish those tens of thousands who we expect to remain at their posts to clean up the mess. Who among us really believes that spanking the innocent for the misdeeds of others is an effective motivational tool??

How did it ever get to this place to begin with? The answer to that lies with Hank Paulson’s ill conceived three page TARP plan to give money to desperate institutions with no pre-conditions. While not quite the moral equivalent of giving an alcoholic another drink, it is not a completely inappropriate analogy. In the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown clearly saw the need to stipulate significant preconditions to the granting of bailout funds. Tim Geithner’s comments that he did not know about bonuses etc reminds one of Inspector Reynaud’s comment in the movie Casablanca as he closed down Rick’s Cafe for gambling (after accepting his winnings). The time for assertive action was then. For Geithner to not have thought about compensation and contracts is naive. He was and is an experienced hand at dealing with Wall Street. He is neither naive nor stupid. Moreover, he had the example of Gordon Brown to follow (repugnant as it may be for an American financial titan to follow the example of an over educated son of a Scottish preacher). The sad reality is that he either was unduly influenced by Paulson, opted to not fight with Paulson for fear of adversely influencing markets or lacked the fortitude to do what had to be done at the time. As a result, and to paraphrase Julius Caesar, another ancient Roman, “the die was cast”.

What then should be done about AIG? Initially, each bonus recipient should be both “jawboned” and told that they will be publicly identified with all of the attendant ridicule. While many may not mind, there is tangible evidence that a number do care and are stepping forward to return their bonuses. All who do not voluntarily return the bonus money should be subjected to investigation to determine if their deportment was appropriate to warrant receipt of such a bonus. If found lacking, litigation should be undertaken. Finally, the government should seek the agreement of all other TARP recipient institutions to refrain from hiring or doing business with such individuals and/or institutions which hire any of the AIG 400. This de-facto “Black List” would serve as a powerful signal as to the government’s intention to avoid doing business with people who are not “on board with the program”. It will similarly provide a material disincentive for TARP and non-TARP recipients from hiring any of the AIG 400. Because TARP recipient firms firms like JP Morgan, Citibank, Morgan Stanley et al touch so many players in finance, this is a draconian threat to the future employment prospects of anyone who does not “play ball”.

The government needs to make it clear that it will take appropriate action on the AIG bonuses and not tolerate the AIG bonus situation from occurring again. It is equally important that it must not allow a mob mentality to impair its judgment in a manner that results in a Pyrrhic victory of expediency and unintended consequences over the desired administration of serious punishment for non-compliance with the people’s wishes.

About author

Mr Thaler is currently the Managing Partner of Lieutenant Island Partners, an organization providing corporate finance advice and general consulting to corporations and not-for-profit organizations. Mr Thaler retired as Vice Chairman of Deutsche Bank Securities in early 2008. His background includes experience as an investment banker, senior manager, business builder, college professor, not for profit board chair and trustee. In his thirty plus years as an investment banker for Deutsche Bank and Lehman Brothers, he has been involved in numerous significant debt and equity financings, mergers & acquisitions, leverage buyouts, restructurings and cross border transactions. Of particular note, Mr Thaler has been one of the most active participants and strategic advisors to the homebuilding industry. In a period of significant turmoil and losses, he was one of the few active bankers to the industry who did not have either a loss or credit write down. He is currently advising several public builders on strategic matters and is an adjunct professor of finance at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. Though he lives in New York, he is a life long Red Sox fan!